使人对…产生怀疑 可以简单表达为质疑，有质疑精神，在我们的现实生活中，还是蛮重要的，对吧。今天的阅读内容里，有一个关于这个的地道表达，我觉得蛮实用的。cast doubt on 使人对…产生怀疑。我们知道cast的众多含义中的一种是：to say, do or suggest sth that makes people doubt sth or think that sb is less honest, good, etc.使人怀疑某事或认为某人不诚实、不善良等的说、做或建议某事。
Have you ever cast doubt on the world?你曾经怀疑过这个世界吗？这个世界到底是真实的还是虚幻的，还是人类构想的呢？ 一起通过漫长的阅读来寻找答案吧，没有捷径哦～
摘自 CHAPTER 8 THE ORIGIN AND FATE OF THE UNIVERSE 第八章宇宙的起源和命运
①The day after I got back from Moscow I set out for Philadelphia, where I was due to receive a medal from the Franklin Institute.
②My secretary, Judy Fella, had used her not inconsiderable charm to persuade British Airways to give herself and me free seats on a Concorde as a publicity venture.
③However, I .was held up on my way to the airport by heavy rain and I missed the plane.
④Nevertheless, I got to Philadelphia in the end and received my medal.
⑤I was then asked to give a seminar on the inflationary universe at Drexel University in Philadelphia.
⑥I gave the same seminar about the problems of the inflationary universe, just as in Moscow.
⑦A very similar idea to Linde’s was put forth independently a few months later by Paul Steinhardt and Andreas Albrecht of the University of Pennsylvania.
⑧They are now given joint credit with Linde for what is called “the new inflationary model,” based on the idea of a slow breaking of symmetry. (The old inflationary model was Guth’s original suggestion of fast symmetry breaking with the formation of bubbles.)
⑨ The new inflationary model was a good attempt to explain why the universe is the way it is.
⑩However, I and several other people showed that, at least in its original form, it predicted much greater variations in the temperature of the microwave background radiation than are observed.
⑪Later work has also cast doubt on whether there could be a phase transition in the very early universe of the kind required.
⑫In my personal opinion, the new inflationary model is now dead as a scientific theory, although a lot of people do not seem to have heard of its demise and are still writing papers as if it were viable.
⑬A better model, called the chaotic inflationary model, was put forward by Linde in 1983.
⑭In this there is no phase transition or supercooling.
⑮Instead, there is a spin 0 field, which, because of quantum fluctuations, would have large values in some regions of the early universe.
⑯The energy of the field in those regions would behave like a cosmological constant.
⑰It would have a repulsive gravitational effect, and thus make those regions expand in an inflationary manner.
⑱As they expanded, the energy of the field in them would slowly decrease until the inflationary expansion changed to an expansion like that in the hot big bang model.
⑲One of these regions would become what we now see as the observable universe.
⑳This model has all the advantages of the earlier inflationary models, but it does not depend on a dubious phase transition, and it can moreover give a reasonable size for the fluctuations in the temperature of the microwave background that agrees with observation.